A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus.
Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.
The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeats, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine.
The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of winemaking in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia.
The oldest known winery founded in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East.
Thus, it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia, where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians, and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would later spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, and eventually in North America.
In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the Vitis genus proliferate in the wild across the continent, and were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. Vitis viniferacultivars were imported for that purpose.