Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or Aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
“Eggplant” is the common name in North American and Australian English, but British English uses “Aubergine”. It is known in South Asia, Southeast Asia and South Africa as brinjal. Other common names are melongeneGarden, egg, Or guinea squash.
The fruit is widely used in cooking. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to both the tomato and the potato. It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species, the thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum, Probably with two independent domestications, one in the region of South Asia, and one in East Asia
The eggplant is a delicate, tropical perennial often cultivated as a tender or half-hardy annual in temperate climates. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 59 in) tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) broad. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7.38 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (5.9 in) broad. The stem is often spent flower is white to purple, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. The egg-shaped glossy purple fruit has white flesh with a meaty texture. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open. On wild plants, the fruit is less than 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter, but very much larger in cultivated forms, reaching 30 cm (12 in) or more in length.
Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft seeds which, though edible, taste bitter because, the plant being related to tobacco, they containnicotinoid alkaloids.